Types and Benefits of Genetic Testing

Medical science has achieved many milestones by providing cures to many deadly diseases like TB, Malaria, and Hepatitis that have been a major concern in past decades. Now, medical science has crossed its level to the testing of genetic disorders.

It was a bygone era when Genetic Testing was associated only with Medical Research. But now, Medical Science is also focused on Genetic Testing of Clinical levels to prevent future diseases and disorders. That means, you as a consumer can also go to the Medical Institutions for personal genetic testing.

Before jumping directly to the benefits, let’s understand:

What is Genetic Testing?

Genetic testing means examining your body DNA, a chemical unit of your body that is responsible for the functioning of your body. It helps doctors to examine changes (mutations) in your genes that may trigger illness or disease in the near future.

No matter, if it can help to diagnose, treat, and prevent illness, still there are limitations with Genetic Testing. Though it’s an extreme medical test, it doesn’t guarantee you to meet or prevent the risk of disease or disorder in the future.

Asking your Medical Geneticist about what to do with the results is more important than to know about your problems or certain disorders.

Why you should go for Clinical Genetic Testing?

It is very important to opt for Genetic Testing as it can help doctors to determine the risk of developing genetic diseases, disorders, rare diseases. There are different types of Genetic Testing done to identify the real cause of disease or disorder [1,2].

Carrier Testing: People, who have a family history of genetic disorders such as Cystic Fibrosis or some sort of specific genetic disorders continued from generations, can go for Carrier genetic testing before getting pregnant or having a baby. The expanded version of Carrier Testing can detect mutant genes inside you and help you to stop carrying the same disorder to your children.

Prenatal Testing: Prenatal tests can detect disorders in your baby’s genes you are carrying in your womb. Prenatal genetic testing is often done for the detection of any genetic disorders. A new testing technology, Cell-free DNA which is also known as Non-Invasive Prenatal Screening test(NIPS) has come into existence and is performed on the blood sample of the mother, hence having no risk in pregnancy.

Diagnostic Testing: The specific test is suggested to find out the specific genetic or chromosomal condition by Geneticists. The Diagnostic genetic test is highly recommended in the cases of confirming a particular condition suspected by physical signs and symptoms. Diagnostic Tests can be run anytime; before birth or any stage of life.

Preimplantation testing: Also known as Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD), Preimplantation Testing is a popular method of reducing the risk of having a child with some certain genetic disorders. Most preferably, the test is prescribed to detect any genetic changes in embryos that had happened due to reproductive techniques such as in-vitro fertilization performed by a specialist. A small number of cells are taken from the embryos to perform Preimplantation Testing. These cells are then tested for certain genetic changes. Embryos left without changes are implanted in the uterus to generate a pregnancy.

Newborn Screening: New Born Screening is a comprehensive test to screen a newborn baby within 24-72 hours of birth. It identifies if your baby has an IEM disorder (Inborn error of metabolism), that isn’t otherwise observable at the time of birth. These disorders are treatable if identified at an early stage in life. Newborn screening helps in early diagnosis and proper treatment of these disorders thereby making a difference between lifelong impairment and healthy development of the baby.

Predictive & Presymptomatic Testing: Predictive testing is performed to detect gene mutations associated with disorders that often appear in the later stage of life. This kind of test helps those people who have family members with a genetic disorder, but who are not facing signs of the disorders at the time of testing. Presymptomatic testing can help doctors to identify mutations that increase the risk of having genetic disorders such as specific types of cancer.

Forensic Testing: A sequence of DNA is used to detect someone’s identity, which is known as Forensic genetic test, used for legal purposes. Unlike other genetic tests that are described above, Forensic Testing is not used to detect gene mutations associated with some kind of genetic disorders. This type of test is run to identify crime or to find biological relationships between people (Criminals and Victims).

So, we can say that Clinical Genetic Testing is going to find a cure and preventions for so many diseases and disorders.

Where to go for Genetic Testing in India?

Genes2Me – A place for the safest and most trusted Genetic Testing

All the Genetic Counsellor’s at Genes2Me are certified and highly trained to guide you through any of the genetic tests you require to maintain your health. Its well-equipped Lab and Professionals provide a guarantee for the extremely safe and reliable genetic tests. Genes2Me has PAN India presence and performs all regular & advanced molecular diagnostic test to understand the cellular health condition.

References

  1. US National Library of Medicine (2019). What are the types of genetic tests?
  2. MayoClinic (2019). Genetic testing.

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